Hurry! Workers are in short supply! With a monthly salary of 8,000 yuan, he was "poached" by 10,000 yuan in an instant! Where are the manufacturing workers?
(CCTV Finance "Economic Information Network") Recently, "this year's college graduates hit a record high of 9.09 million" has become a hot topic. After more than two months, these graduates will enter the society to find jobs, and the voices of the most difficult employment season are also endless.
But is the job really so hard to find? In recent years, manufacturing factories seem to have become a forgotten corner of the job market. It is not the boss who chooses the job, but the boss.
Difficulty in recruiting workers in manufacturing: job applicants did not come and leavers came
Even with high salaries and high benefits, it seems difficult to get the favor of young people. Why is that? Let's take a look at the recruitment diary of a netizen first.
A netizen in Panyu, Guangzhou, was recently sent by a leader to recruit workers, but he didn't expect it to become his biggest problem since working.
In many developed manufacturing areas, recruitment difficulties have existed for many years. In order to retain front-line workers, some companies can only adopt a strategy of continuous salary increases, and some even include stable employees in their corporate strategy.
Hu Lijun, person in charge of an enterprise in Cixi City, Zhejiang Province: We have increased our salary by 15% to 20% on the basis of last year's salary.
According to media reports, a general worker hired by an electronics factory in Jiangsu with a monthly salary of 8,000 yuan was snatched away by the electronics factory next door with a monthly salary of 10,000 yuan as soon as they arrived at the scene. Why can't the factory recruit people?
Hu Lijun, person in charge of an enterprise in Cixi City, Zhejiang Province: If you hire a skilled worker, you may not be able to hire 15,000 yuan a month.
Nowadays, factory workers are mainly young people born in the 90s and 00s. They grew up in an era when China’s economy was booming, and their living conditions and education were generally higher than those of their predecessors, they had more freedom of thought, lived more self-consciously, and were unwilling to stay in factories with more living and less money.
During the epidemic, 40% of the new riders used to be manufacturing workers
On the one hand, it was difficult for graduates to find jobs, but on the other hand, it was difficult for a large number of factories to recruit people. Data from the National Bureau of Statistics show that the current labor force in my country is nearly 900 million. Where is all the labor force going?
With the rapid development of Internet service industries such as express delivery, food delivery, and online car-hailing, newcomers in the workplace have more choices.
China's rapidly expanding Internet service industry is like a rapidly expanding sponge, absorbing more and more young and middle-aged labor.
Liu Xin, a professor at the School of Public Administration of Renmin University of China: One of the characteristics of the express delivery industry is that it is quick to get started, and secondly, you can control how much money you earn. Now young people are more willing to live Life in control.
In 2019, the number of employees in China's express delivery business has exceeded 10 million, and the total number of catering delivery staff has exceeded 7 million. The 2020 epidemic will intensify the movement of labor between industries. A certain platform has released data: During the epidemic, 580,000 new riders were added in two months, 40% of which came from manufacturing workers.
Chen Xinnian, a researcher at the Economic Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission: In essence, the transfer of this labor force is essentially from the processing and manufacturing industries with relatively low skill requirements to the service industry with the same skill requirements. Low express delivery industry.
Many people with decent jobs have also begun to find another way out. Middle-aged programmers choose to run Didi, and designers with a monthly salary of 40,000 choose to deliver food. For a while, the Internet blue-collar group seems to be a place where the dragon and the tiger are hidden. .
A data in 2018 caused a great uproar. At that time, the number of domestic and foreign sellers was close to 7 million. In proportion, the number of takeaways with a master’s degree or above exceeded 70,000.
Chen Xinnian, researcher of the Economic Research Institute of the National Development and Reform Commission: The phenomenon of "ice and fire" in employment is definitely abnormal. We hope that the employer and the job seeker will match each other, and a virtuous circle will appear.
The changes of the times behind the transfer of labor industry
Manufacturing recruitment is cold, and Internet employment is hot. The difference between the cold and the hot is actually the concept of people’s employment under the changes of the times. change.
Looking back, entering the factory was the dream of a generation. In the 1980s, the clarion call for reform and opening up sounded all over China. Farmers who used to cultivate the land for their ancestors suddenly had a new employment option-to work in cities. This is the main force in the era of China's "manufacturing factory". They are proud of being workers in the factory, and they have worked hard to act as the countless "screws" in the huge industrial machinery, propping up half of the manufacturing highlands such as the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta.
Data shows that from 2008 to 2018, the average annual growth rate of migrant workers engaged in manufacturing was -2.84%. Most of the new generation of migrant workers are unwilling to follow the career path of their parents. In 2019, of the 4 million riders that Meituan took out, the proportion of riders under the age of 40 was as high as 83.7%.
Liu Xin, professor of the School of Public Administration, Renmin University of China: In different times, people will be keen on different industries. This is a normal phenomenon of social development.
Manufacturing factories are becoming more intelligent and automated equipment, which is also reducing the jobs of ordinary workers. The Oxford Economics Research Institute issued a report in 2019 stating that the installation of a new robot will reduce 1.6 jobs, and by 2030, the global manufacturing employment will be reduced by 20 million.
Although machines can replace a large number of general labor needs, it is still difficult to shake the positions of many senior technicians, and it is often difficult to find a "craftsman" under high salaries. Fang Heyun's company will produce a batch of products with relatively complex manufacturing processes in the near future. In order to find workers who meet the technical requirements, Fang Heyun does not hesitate to use personal connections and entrust them everywhere.
Fang Heyun, person in charge of an electronic product company in Dongguan, Guangdong: On average, at least 15,000 yuan a month, please as soon as possible, we are short of this person.
With the development of the manufacturing industry, its employment threshold is increasing year by year, and knowledge-based and skilled labor will become the mainstream. But in the traditional sense, skilled workers have been apprentices in three years and teachers in ten years. The training of high-level skilled workers is indeed much more difficult than that of courier brothers.
In recent years, the output value of China's manufacturing industry has been increasing year after year. As of 2020, it has maintained its status as the world's largest manufacturing country for 11 consecutive years. The trend of China from a large manufacturing country to a strong manufacturing country is unstoppable.
Yang Yansui, Director of the Employment and Social Security Research Center of Tsinghua University: Manufacturing is an important level that can measure a country’s productivity. Technological progress, as well as the Internet society, are actually improving the capabilities and levels of manufacturing , Not to replace manufacturing.